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Year : 2016  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 50-55

Off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery: Intra-aortic balloon pump aides multivessel revascularization in high-risk patients

1 Department of Surgery, Wellstar Atlanta Medical Center, Atlanta, USA
2 Section of Cardiology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, USA
3 Wellstar Kennestone Regional Medical Center, Marietta, GA, USA

Correspondence Address:
Jonathan Nwiloh
Department of Surgery, Wellstar Atlanta Medical Center, Atlanta, GA
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/2468-7391.195929

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Objective: Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) has been demonstrated to be a safe technique with similar outcomes to on-pump coronary artery bypass (ONCAB) in low-risk patients, while its role and benefits in high-risk patients are the subject of ongoing clinical trials. This review compares our high-risk patients aided by intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) with low-risk patients undergoing OPCAB to identify any differences in outcomes. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty-four patients who underwent OPCAB surgery between January 2004 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. 61.3% were males, 57.3% were African Americans, mean age was 62.7 ± 13.3, and range was 30-90 years. Patients were divided into Group 1, 26 (21.0%) patients with IABP and Group 2, 98 (79.0%) patients without IABP. Group 1 patients had higher risk profile with mean ejection fraction (EF) 26.0 ± 10.8 and EF ≤20 present in 46.1% compared to 45.2 ± 11.9 and 5.1%, respectively, in Group 2 (P < 0.001). Results: 92.35% of Group 1 and 82.7% of Group 2 patients had multivessel disease with a mean number of bypass grafts 2.9 ± 0.97 versus 2.75 ± 0.8, respectively (P < 0.364). Left internal mammary artery (LIMA) to left anterior descending (LAD) was performed in all Group 1 and 97.9% of Group 2 patients, with saphenous vein graft (SVG) to the left circumflex and right coronary arteries in 73.1% versus 62.2% and 57.7% versus 52.0% of Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Complete revascularization occurred in 88.5% and 90.8% of Groups 1 and 2, respectively (P < 0.990). 4.0% were converted to ONCAB for either hemodynamic instability or intramyocardial coronary artery. Major morbidities were re-exploration for bleeding 3.8% versus 1.0%, stroke 3.8% versus 2.0%, acute kidney injury 11.5% versus 0%, and prolonged intubation 15.4% versus 2.0% in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Euroscore II predicted (P) versus observed (O) mortality was 4.56% versus 4.03%, for Group 1, 7.82% versus 7.69% and Group 2, 3.64% versus 3.06%, and O/P ratios 0.88, 0.98 and 0.84 respectively. Two (2.0%) females in Group 2 with single LIMA to LAD underwent repeat revascularization with SVG to the LAD within 90 days. Conclusion: IABP helps stabilize hemodynamics during OPCAB in high-risk patients with moderate to severe left ventricular dysfunction. Mean number of bypass grafts and predicted versus observed mortality were similar between the low- and high-risk groups.

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